考研英语名师指导 通过阅读学词汇(一)

考研英语名师指导 通过阅读学词汇(一)

2023年 1月 17日 0 作者 gong2022

??考研英语名师指导:通过阅读学词汇(一)

Unit one

Elementary Schools in early America

What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early America — breakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine?

Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country’s excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, “spatial” thinking about things technological.

Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.

Acute foreign observers related american adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, “With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman.”

A further stimulus to invention came from the “premium” system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it. This approach, originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives.

In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.

Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, “A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process. The designer and the inventor are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist.”

This nonverbal “spatial” thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. robert fulton once wrote, “The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc. , like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea.”

When all these shaping forces — schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking — interacted with one another on the rich U.S. mainland, they produced that american characteristic, emulation. Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.

invention n. 1.发明,发明物 2.捏造,虚构

inventor n.发明家,发明者

[联想词]

inventory n.1.详细目录 2.存货清单

breakthhrough n. 1.突围,突破 2.重大成就,惊人发现

[联想词]

breakdown n. 1.垮台,破裂 2.衰竭,衰弱 3.损坏,故障 4.分类

premium n. 1.保险金 2.额外费用 3. 奖品,赠品,额外津贴

a. 1.高级的,优质的 2.售价高的

[联想词]

subsidy n. 津贴,补贴

verbal a. 1.口头的 2.用言辞的,用文字的

[联想词]

vocal a. 发声的,嗓音的

spatial a. 空间的,与空间有关的

literacy n.识字,有文化,读写能力

literate a.1.有读写能力的 2.有文化修养的

stimulus n. 1.促进 2.刺激

[联想词]

provocation n. 1.挑衅,挑拨 2.刺激,激怒

provocative a. 1.挑衅的,煽动的 2.刺激的

precede vt. 在…之前,先于

precedent n. 1.先例,范例,判例 2.惯例

patent n.专利,专利权

a.专利(权)的,受专利保护的

vt.得到…的专利权

originate vi. 起源于,来自,产生

vt.创造,创始,开创

[联想词]

commence v.开始

incentive n.刺激,鼓励

multitude n. 1.大量,许多 2.大众,民众

ambiguous a.引起歧义的,模式棱两可的,含糊不清的

[联想词]

indefinite a. 1.不明确的,含糊的 2.无限期的

exdplicit a. 1.明确的,明晰的;详述的 2.直言的,毫不隐瞒的,露骨的

manipulate vt. 1.操纵,控制,影响 2.操作,使用

lever n. 1.杠杆 2.途径,工具,手段

vt. 撬动,撬起

wedge n.楔(子) vt. 把…楔入,塞入

[联想词]

groove n. 沟,槽

hinge n. 铰链

interact vi. 相互作用,相互影响

emulation n. 1.竞赛,竞争 2.仿效,仿真

imitation n. 1.模仿 2.仿制,仿制品 3.赝品

strive vi. 努力,奋斗,力求

sculpture n.1.雕刻,雕塑 2.雕刻作品,雕塑品

[联想词]

carve vt. 1.切,把…切碎 2.雕刻,刻

engrave vt. 1.在…上雕刻 2.使铭记,使牢记

statue n. 雕像,塑像

bust n. 1.胸像,半身像 2.胸部,胸围

marble n. 1.大理石

diploma n. 毕业文凭,毕业证书,资格证书

[联想词]

diplomat n. 1.外交官,外交家 2.有交际手段的人,圆滑的人

perpetual a. 1.永久的,永恒的,长期的 2.无休止的,没完没了的

Unit Two

Fight Again Youth Smoking

Three years ago, appalled by how many children were becoming addicted to cigarettes every year, the Vice President and I committed this administration to stopping the sale and marketing of cigarettes to children. Today, thanks to these efforts and the persistence of state attorneys general, the public health community, and leaders in Congress, we have the best opportunity ever to pass comprehensive anti-smoking legislation that well save millions of our children from a premature, painful, and very preventable death.

This week, in a historic and resounding 19 to 1 vote, a key Senate committee gave its stamp of approval to comprehensive legislation sponsored by Senator John McCain, a Republican, and Senator Fritz Hollings, a Democrat, that would cut youth smoking by half over the next decade. This bill represents a dramatic step forward. It would raise the price of cigarettes, give the FDA full authority to regulate tobacco products, ban advertising aimed at children, and protect tobacco farmers.

We still have work to do in this legislation. Above all, we need to put in place tough penalties that will cost the tobacco industry if it continues to sell cigarettes to young people. Just this week the Centers for Disease Control released a disturbing report that more than a third of teenagers in the United States now smoke, even though it’s illegal.

It is time to hold tobacco companies accountable. Reducidng youth smoking must be veerybody’s bottom line. Let’s remember — this is not about politics or money, or seeking revenge against the tobacco industry for past practices. We’re not trying to put the tobacco companies out of business; we want to put them out of the business of selling cigarattes to kids. This week’s progress in the Senate shows we have real momentum in both parties to do just that.

There’re still maly issues to be worked out and many long nights ahead. But we have within our grasp one of the most important public health victories our nation has ever achieved.

Finally, lit me just pause a moment to observe the 30th anniversary of the death of one of America’s greatest heroes, Dr. Martin Luther King. His dream, deeply rooted in the American Dream, is a dream for all Americans. Let us here at home always strive to heed Dr. King’s words and live up to his legacy.

——– Bill Clinton

appall vt.使惊骇,使大吃一惊

[联想词]

terrify vt.使害怕,使惊吓

outrage vt.激起…的义愤,激怒

n.1.义愤,愤慨 2.暴行,骇人听闻的事件

addict n.1.有瘾的人 2.入迷的人

vt.使成瘾,使入迷

[联想词]

cocaine n.可卡因

toxic a.有毒的,中毒引起的

persistent a. 1.坚持不懈的,执意的 2.持续的

persistence n.1.坚持不懈,执意 2. 持续性,持续状态

[联想词]

stubborn a. 1.顽固的,执拗的,倔强的 2.难对付的,难于克服的

legislation n.1.法律,法规 2,立法的,法律的制定

[联想词]

legitimate a. 1.合情合理的 2.合法的,法律认可的

judicial a. 1.司法的,法庭的,审判的 2.明断的,公正的

sue vi.1.控告,起诉 2.要求,请求 vt.控告,起诉

prosecute vt.1.对…提起公诉,告发,检举 2.继续从事 vi.起诉,告发

defendant n.被告

invalid a.1.无效的,作废的 2.无可靠依据的 n.病弱者,残疾者

testify vi.1.作证,证明 2.表明,说明 vt.作证,证明

testimony n.1.证词 2.见证,证明

premature a.1.比预期时间早是 2.不成熟的,仓促的

authority n.1.权力,管辖权 2.官方,当局 3.当权者,行政管理机构 4.权威,专家

authoritative a.1.权威性的,可信的 2.专断的,命令式的

authorize vt.授权,批准

[联想词]

definitive a. 1.最可靠的,权威性的 2.决定性的

accountable a. 负起责任的

revenge n.报复,报仇

momentum n.1.动力,冲力,势力 2.动量

[联想词]

impetus n.1.推动,促进,刺激 2.推动力

strive vi.努力,奋斗,力求

heed vt.留心,注意,听从

legency n.遗赠的财物,遗产

deadly a.1.致死的,致命的 2.不共戴天的,殊死的 3.极度的,十足的 ad.非常,极度地]

[联想词]

drastic a.1.极端的,严厉的 2.激烈的,迅猛的

epidemic n.1.流行病 2.流传,流行 a.流行性的,流传极广的

lure vt.吸引,引诱,诱惑

Unit Three

Beauty Is Meaningless

A young man sees a sunset and, unable to understand or to express the emotion that it rouses in him, concludes that it must be the gateway to a world that lies beyond. It is difficult for any of us in moments of intense aesthetic experience to resist the suggestion that we are catching a glimpse of a light that shines down to us from a different realm of existence, different and, because the experience is intensely moving, in some wqy higher. And, though the gleams blind and dazzle, yet they do convey a hint of beauty and serenity greater than we have known or imagined. Greater too than we can describe, for language, which was invented to convey the meanings of this world, cannot readily be fitted to the uses of another.

That all great art has this power of suggesting a world beyond is undeniable. In some moods, Nature shares it. There is no sky in June so blue that it does not point forward to a bluer, no sunset so beautiful that it does not waken the vision of a greater beauty, a wision which passes before it is fully glimpsed, and in passing leaves an indefinable linging and regret. But, if this world is not merely a bad joke, life a vulgar flare amid the cool radiance of the stars, and existence an empty laugh braying across the mysteries, if these intimations of a something behind and beyond are not evil humour born of indigestion, or whimsies sent by the devil to mock and madden us , if, in a word, beauty means something, yet we must not seek to interpret the meaning. If we glimpse the unutterable, it is unwise to try to utter it, nor should we seek to invest with significance that which we cannot grasp. Beauty in terms of our human meanings is meaningless.

intense a. 1.强烈的,剧烈的,紧张的 2.认真的,专注的 3.热情的,热切的

intensify v. (使)增强,(使)加剧

aesthetic a. 1.美学的,审美的 2.悦目的,雅致的

gleam vi.1.闪亮,闪烁 2.闪现,流露 n.1.闪光,闪亮 2.闪现,流露

[联想词]

sparkle vi.1.发光,闪耀,闪烁 2.活跃,焕发 n.1.发光,闪耀,闪烁 2.活力,生气

glitter vi. 闪闪发光,闪耀 n.闪光,灿烂的光辉 2.耀眼,辉煌

dazzle vt. 使眩目 n.1.耀眼的光 2.令人赞叹的东西

serenity n. 1.平静,安详 2.晴朗,明朗

denial n. 1.否认 2.拒绝

undeniable a.不可否认的

vulgar a. 1.粗野的,下流的 2.庸俗的,粗俗的

[联想词]

boscene a. 1.淫秽的,下流的 2.可憎的,可恶的

flare vi. 1.(火焰)闪耀 2.突发,突然发怒 n.闪光信号,照明弹

[联想词]

erupt vi. 1.(火山等)喷发 2.(战争等)爆发,突然发生

ignite vt. 点燃,引发

radiant a. 1.容光焕发的,喜形于色的 2.光芒四射的,光辉灿烂的 3.辐射的

[联想词]

radiate v. 1.发出(光或热),辐射 2.流露,显示

radioactive a. 放射性的,有辐射的

bray vi. 1.(驴)叫 2.以响而粗的声音说(或笑)

whimsy n. 1.怪念头,离奇的想法 2.稀奇古怪

[联想词]

bizare a. 怪诞的,奇形怪状的

weird a. 1.古怪的,离奇的 2.怪诞的,神秘可怕的

mock vt. 1.嘲笑,嘲弄 2.(为了取笑)模仿 vi.嘲笑,嘲弄

a. 1.模拟的,学习的 2.假的,假装的

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